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General lithium-ion battery questions
One Trojan 48V Lithium-Ion battery has an MSRP (Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price) of $1,240. You can purchase Trojan Lithium-Ion batteries through your local dealer.
Lithium-ion batteries are made up of multiple small cells connected together to provide the voltage and current needed for the application. The Battery Management System or BMS is responsible for keeping these cells working in unison so that they are charged and discharged correctly. Lithium-ion cells are more sensitive to overcharge and undercharge conditions than many other battery chemistries. The BMS monitors the charge and discharge of the battery to ensure the battery operates safely.
For the Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery, Trojan developed a BMS that is able to monitor individual cells, internal battery temperatures, state of charge, state of health plus charging voltage and current to provide the safest and most reliable operation possible.
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery uses Lithium-Iron-Phosphate cells.
Most low-speed electric vehicles operate on 36-48V DC, but traditional lead-acid batteries are designed and built to be 6, 8, or 12V for portability and to make them more universal. When they are installed into a 36V or 48V application, these batteries are connected together in series to increase the available voltage to match the requirements of the vehicle.
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery is designed to work with 48V vehicles without using series connections. This provides increased reliability over configurations that use series connections because each battery can power the vehicle independently, where one bad battery in a series connection can reduce the performance of the entire system.
There is no date code on the Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery. The manufacturing date is marked on the sticker with the serial number on the side of the battery.
Many factors will go into choosing the correct setup for your unique cart. Factors that must be considered are:
• Motor controller size • Drive motor size • Oversized tires or aftermarket gearing • Accessories using battery power (lights, radios, etc.)
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery configuration should be matched to each cart to support the instantaneous load that is dictated by the motor controller and also the continuous load generated by driving at top speed, plus the load of any accessories that may be running.
Authorized Trojan Lithium-Ion Dealers can assist you in determining the best configuration for your needs.
Lithium-ion battery performance
Generally, the battery performance is directly related to temperature. Charging and discharging minimum and maximum temperatures are listed below. There are additional charging temperature constraints described in the Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion User’s Guide.
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery will disable both charge and discharge functions when the internal battery temperature exceeds 140°F (60°C) or falls below -4°F (-20°C).
If discharge functions are disabled, they will be restored automatically when the internal battery temperature is between 14°F (-10°C) and 131°F (55°C).
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery has an expected life of at least eight years or 4,000 cycles to 70% depth of discharge. Expected life is per manufacturer guidelines.
For a standard golf cart (3.5 HP motor and 250A motor controller), two batteries will go for 30-45 miles, whereas three batteries are good for up to 60 miles. One battery (not generally recommended except in lite use cases) will go for less than 30 miles with one person in the cart and no additional load in the cart.
Actual driving range will vary depending on factors including, but not limited to, load, terrain, temperature and equipment.
Lithium-ion battery safety
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery is a sealed battery, so there is no risk of contact with the internal components under normal operation. Eighty percent (80%) of the cells are solid and only two percent (2%) of the contents are corrosive. Refer to the Safety Datasheet for a breakdown of the components within the battery.
Standard Personal Protective Equipment for installing a golf cart battery should also be used when installing the Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery. This includes safety glasses, safety toe shoes, and cut-resistant gloves.
Insulated tools should always be used when working around batteries.
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery is IP67 rated for water and dust resistance, so the batteries can be exposed to water indirectly without harm. It is not recommended to directly spray batteries with pressurized water or fully submerse them intentionally. While the battery is protected against water ingress, it is important to remember that water with impurities can be conductive and lead to a short circuit if a path is created between terminals.
Installation of lithium-ion batteries
Up to ten (10) Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Batteries can be used in parallel.
In most applications, you will not need a spacer battery to install Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Batteries with the existing hold-down brackets. Spacer batteries are needed when a battery hold-down cannot be properly secured to the desired number of battery cases installed.
As an example, if three GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Batteries are being installed for a desired application, but the hold-down bracket requires a fourth battery for support, then one additional battery case (spacer battery) is needed to complete the installation.
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery is compatible with nearly all 48V golf carts that use GC2-sized batteries. The exact configuration of the GC2 48V needed may vary depending on modifications made to the vehicle and the user's intended application.
Golf carts with on-board computers that control charging or voltage may require programming or a separate battery charger for optimum performance.
Installing the Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery is very similar to installing a lead-acid battery with a GC2 case. The most important difference is that the GC2 48V should only be connected in parallel with other GC2 48V batteries. They should never be connected in series and they should not be connected to any other battery type.
When replacing flooded lead acid batteries, ballasts may be needed because of the difference in weight and center of gravity. See the Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery User's Guide.
One unique feature of the GC2 48V is the ability to put the battery into Sleep or Storage mode. This is recommended during installation because it will eliminate voltage to the terminals, making installation safer.
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery is a 48V unit, so 12V accessories cannot be connected directly to it. A Voltage Converter (also known as a Voltage Reducer) should be used to allow the use of 12V accessories on a 48V system. When these converters are used, it is recommended that the 48V connections are made from the first and last battery in the parallel configuration for optimum balance.
Maintenance of lithium-ion batteries
Lithium-Ion batteries are sealed and do not accelerate corrosion. Some environmental conditions such as water exposure, saltwater mist or other may still cause corrosion on copper cable lugs, cables or non-stainless steel hardware. It is recommended to regularly inspect the terminals on the battery and clean them as needed.
Authorized Trojan Lithium-Ion Dealers have Trojan specific cables and software that allow them to interface with the BMS and read alarm and event history as well as view details regarding the battery's current condition.
Connecting to the BMS requires a Trojan Service Cable kit, which includes a USB-to-CAN adapter, two (2) CAN Terminators, and an M8-to-DB9 adapter.
The terminal should be torqued to between eighty (80) and ninety (90) inch-pounds using a calibrated torque wrench.
When the button on top of the battery is pressed, a number of Blue LEDs indicate the state of charge from 0-25% (1 LED), 26-50% (2 LEDs), 51-75% (3 LEDs) and 76-100% (4 LEDs).
The battery has six LEDs that help the user determine the battery's condition. When the button on top of the battery is pressed, a number of Blue LEDs indicate the state of charge from 0-25% (1 LED) 26-50% (2 LEDs) 51-75% (3 LEDs) and 76-100% (4 LEDs). In addition, either a red or green LED will also illuminate. A green LED indicates that the battery is operating normally and no faults are present. A red LED indicates there is a fault.
If a fault is present, users can gather an indication of the fault by the present state of the battery. Faults are typically caused by one of four conditions:
• High Temperature (While Charging or Driving) • Low Temperature (While Charging or Driving) • High Current (While Driving or Charging) • Low Voltage (While Driving)
Maintenance free indicates that the battery does not require watering, equalize or maintenance charges, or frequent cleaning of the terminals. It is still recommended that a visual inspection is performed on the battery on a regular basis.
Follow storage and maintenance according to the GC2 48V Lithium-Ion User's Guide and warranty.
The battery has six LEDs that will help the user determine the battery's condition. When the button on top of the battery is pressed, a number of Blue LEDs indicate the state of charge from 0-25% (1 LED), 26-50% (2 LEDs), 51-75% (3 LEDs) and 76-100% (4 LEDs). In addition, either a red or green LED will also illuminate. A green LED indicates that the battery is operating normally and no faults are present. A red LED indicates there is a fault.
A short circuit fault occurs when the battery is powered on and a direct conductive path is created between the positive and negative terminals. This fault can also be activated if more than 600A are passed through the battery from an external source.
When the short circuit fault is active, it will not automatically reset. The user must verify that the cause of the fault has been corrected and then perform the same procedure used to bring the battery out of storage mode to clear the short circuit fault.
Charging lithium-ion batteries
Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Batteries will temporarily disable charging function at temperatures above 113°F (45°C) or below 32°F (0°C). At temperatures below 68°F (20°C), charging current is automatically limited. Refer to the user guide for charging current limits.
If charging functions are disabled due to temperature, they will be restored automatically when temperature is within range.
Storage and shipping of lithium-ion batteries
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery arrives in approved packaging that can be saved for future use.
To ship the GC2 48V, the battery must be packaged in a UN Rated and marked 4G Fiberboard Box with Y25 Weight. It must be secured and prevented from moving freely within the box, using anti-static bubble wrap or foam.
The box must be labeled as DOT Class 9 with Lithium Ion Batteries, UN3480 displayed on the outside of the box. For air transport, a Cargo Aircraft Only label must be present.
Download: Lithium-Ion Battery Repacking Instructions
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery is classified as UN3480 and as such must be at or below fifty percent (50%) state of charge when shipped via land or sea and below thirty percent (30%) state of charge when shipped via air.
Yes, as long as both battery types are properly packaged and labeled, they can be shipped on the same vehicle.
Wherever possible, putting lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries on the same pallet should be avoided. If it cannot be avoided, the pallet must be clearly labeled as containing both.
Lithium-ion batteries must be individually packed and labeled on the pallet as well.
A battery subject to UN3480, like the Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery, cannot be transported on a passenger aircraft. As long as it is correctly prepared, packaged and labeled, no other restrictions apply. Refer to the GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery User's Guide or Packaging Requirements section of this FAQ for details on preparation and packing.
Download: Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion User’s Guide
Storage requirements for the Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery are the same as for other battery types. They should be stored in a clean, cool and dry environment and protected from direct sunlight.
For batteries being stored in a warehouse, it is recommended that they be left in the original packaging for protection and so they can be shipped easily.
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery can be stored alongside lead-acid batteries. However, it is recommended that they be clearly labeled as lithium-ion to prevent misidentification.
Follow storage and maintenance according to the GC2 48V Lithium-Ion User's Guide and warranty.
The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery is designed to be stored for up to six months when placed into storage mode at a state of charge above twenty-five percent (25%).
Temperatures exceeding 77ºF (25ºC) or below 32ºF (0ºC) can reduce the available storage time.
A BMS integrated into a battery pack does draw a small amount of current from the batteries to continue running. The Trojan GC2 48V Lithium-Ion Battery features a sleep/storage mode which reduces this draw by 5x.
This allows the GC2 48V to be stored for up to six months as long as it is placed into storage mode with more than twenty-five percent (25%) state of charge.
If the battery is not put into storage mode, it will automatically enter storage mode after thirty (30) days of inactivity.
Press and hold the button on the top of the battery. If it is already in storage mode, the LEDs will illuminate one at a time until they are all illuminated. Continue to hold the button for two (2) more seconds and then release. Wait ten (10) seconds and confirm the battery has powered on by pressing the button for one (1) second to show a Red or Green LED indicating the battery status and a combination blue LEDs indicating the state of charge.
If the battery is powered on, the LEDs will all illuminate and then turn off one by one. Continue to hold the button for an additional two seconds and then release. Wait ten (10) seconds and press the power button briefly, only a blue LED will flash to indicate that the battery is in storage mode.
Accessories for lithium-ion batteries
Yes, Trojan offers an external Battery Charge Indicator separately from the battery to provide end users with the remaining State of Charge % of the batteries in the vehicle. When the display reaches 20%, it will show a low battery notification to let the user know that the battery is approaching its total usable capacity and should be recharged soon. The display will also show if any faults or alarms are present on the batteries.
Authorized Trojan Lithium-ion Dealers can perform the installation of the external gauge and all necessary cable connections.
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